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05.10.2019
16:08 News-Medical.NetResearchers develop new way of 3D printing soft biomaterials (3)

A new way of 3D printing soft materials such as gels and collagens offers a major step forward in the manufacture of artificial medical implants.

07.10.2019
14:55 Reuters.com HealthDoctors who deciphered body's response to oxygen win Nobel Medicine Prize (2)

Two Americans and a Briton won the 2019 Nobel Medicine Prize on Monday for discovering a molecular switch that regulates how cells adapt to fluctuating oxygen levels, opening up new approaches to treating heart failure, anaemia and cancer.

04.10.2019
11:34 Technology.orgStem Cell Studies Offer Hope for Childhood Neurological Condition (2)

Two new studies by an international team of researchers report progress in using stem cells to develop new

08:17 News-Medical.Net3D printer could help expedite repair or replace damaged tissues for injured warfighters (2)

The ability to 3D print a variety of healthcare-related products in deployment zones would greatly benefit the nation's warfighters.

03.10.2019
19:49 ScienceDaily.comPrinted electronics open way for electrified tattoos and personalized biosensors (2)

Electrical engineers have devised a fully print-in-place technique for printable electronics that is gentle enough to work on delicate surfaces ranging from paper to human skin. This can be accomplished without additional steps to bake, wash or powder-coat materials. The advance could enable technologies such as high-adhesion, embedded electronic tattoos and bandages with patient-specific biosensors.

18.10.2019
10:06 Nature.ComRussian ‘CRISPR-baby’ scientist has started editing genes in eggs from a deaf woman (1)

Nature is the international weekly journal of science: a magazine style journal that publishes full-length research papers in all disciplines of science, as well as News and Views, reviews, news, features, commentaries, web focuses and more, covering all branches of science and how science impacts upon all aspects of society and life.

17.10.2019
23:41 ScienceDaily.comWhen added to gene therapy, plant-based compound may enable faster, more effective treatments (1)

Today's standard process for administering gene therapy is expensive and time-consuming -- a result of the many steps required to deliver the healthy genes into the patients' blood stem cells to correct a genetic problem. Scientists believe they have found a way to sidestep some of the current difficulties, resulting in a more efficient gene delivery method that would save money and improve treatment outcomes.

15.10.2019
17:10 Phys.orgAAV vector integration into CRISPR-induced DNA breaks (1)

To design safe clinical trials, it is crucial to better understand and predict gene editing outcomes in preclinical studies. Bence György and collaborators have shown that adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) can stably integrate into CRISPR-Cas9-induced double-strand breaks, in up to almost half of the therapeutically targeted cells, in vitro and in vivo in mice. The team also showed that CRISPR did not cause an increase in genome-wide integration of AAV, but only at the CRISPR-cut site.

11.10.2019
20:05 LiveScience.comWest Nile Virus: Causes, Symptoms and Prevention (1)

Most people bitten by a West Nile virus mosquito won't get sick, but in a small percentage of people, the virus invades the brain and spinal cord, which results in serious illness.

10.10.2019
20:27 Nature.ComA lethal virus carried by ‘vampires’ is rampaging across the Americas (1)

09.10.2019
19:00 Phys.orgCRISPR-BEST prevents genome instability (1)

Even though CRISPR technologies allow for better manipulation of genomes with many positive effects on modern drug development and the discovery of new and better antibiotics, significant problems such as genome instability and toxicity of the Cas9 protein still remain when using the technology.

18:19 ScienceDaily.comCRISPR-BEST prevents genome instability (1)

Scientists have developed CRISPR-BEST, a new genome editing tool for actinomycetes. It addresses the problem of genome instability caused by DNA double-stranded breaks in current CRISPR-technologies.

12:32 Technology.orgPenn developed Gene Therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Safely Preserves Muscle Function (1)

A gene therapy being developed at Penn Medicine to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) successfully and safely stopped the

08.10.2019
21:38 ScienceDaily.comLimitations of method for determining protein structure (1)

A new study by chemists shows that X-ray crystallography, the standard method for determining the structure of proteins, can provide inaccurate information about membrane proteins, which in turn could lead to poor and inefficient drug design.

20:34 CancerNetwork.comDr. Emens Discusses Overall Survival in HER2+ Breast Cancer (1)

Dr. Leisha Emens of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center's Hillman Cancer Center discusses the overall survival in the KATE2 study.

10:14 Google news Sci/TechThe 2019 Nobel Prize winners in medicine, physics, chemistry, literature, peace, and economics - Quartz (1)

    The 2019 Nobel Prize winners in medicine, physics, chemistry, literature, peace, and economics  QuartzNobel Prize in Medicine awarded for new discovery on how humans respond to oxygen  CNNNobel Prize in Medicine Awarded for Research on How Cells Manage Oxygen  The New York TimesIs the Nobel Prize still relevant? | Inside Story  Al Jazeera EnglishMoving on from scandal, Swedish Academy to award two Nobel literature prizes  ReutersView full coverage on Google News

00:59 News-Medical.NetCarnegie Mellon and Yale win NIH grant to advance gene editing technique (1)

A research team from Carnegie Mellon University and Yale University will advance their innovative, synthetic nucleic acid-based gene editing technique under a new grant from the National Institutes of Health's Somatic Cell Genome Editing Program.

00:39 Drugs.comMouse Study Suggests Vaping Might Raise Cancer Risk (1)

MONDAY, Oct. 7, 2019 -- The nicotine in e-cigarette vapor appears to cause cancer in mice, a new lab study suggests. The proportion of mice who developed lung cancer after a year's exposure to nicotine-laced e-cigarette vapor was about four times...

07.10.2019
23:14 News-Medical.NetExercise can help protect cancer patients' heart from negative effects of therapies (1)

Patients with cancer should receive a tailored exercise prescription to protect their heart, reports a paper published today in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, a journal of the European Society of Cardiology.

22:17 CNBC health careResearchers find e-cigarettes cause lung cancer in mice in first study tying vaping to cancer (1)

How carcinogenic e-cigarette use is for humans "may not be known for a decade," but the study is the first to link vaping nicotine to cancer

21:36 ScienceDaily.comCritical process for how breast cancer spreads in bones (1)

Researchers have identified a pair of proteins believed to be critical for spreading, or metastasizing, breast cancer to bone.

18:42 Medscape.ComIncreased Cancer Incidence May Reflect 'Overdiagnosis' (1)

Epidemiologic signatures can provide insight into true cancer occurrence, overdiagnosis, and advances in treatment.

18:32 Phys.orgFor gene-edited livestock, regulation is in its infancy (1)

Genetically modified salmon are, in principle, the only animal in the world with artificially altered DNA to have made their way onto humanity's plate—if only, for the moment, in Canada.

13:42 LiveScience.comScientists Implant False Memories into Bird Brains (1)

False memories implanted in the brains of songbirds could explain how the birds learn to sing — and how people learn to talk.

13:17 Reuters.com HealthKaelin, Ratcliffe and Semenza win 2019 Nobel Medicine Prize (1)

Scientists William Kaelin, Peter Ratcliffe and Gregg Semenza won the 2019 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to the availability of oxygen, the award-giving body said on Monday.

11:39 StemCellsPortal.comlCD166-CD166 Interaction Enhances Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function (1)

Review of “CD166 engagement augments mouse and human hematopoietic progenitor function via activation of stemness and cell cycle pathways” from STEM CELLS by Stuart P. Atkinson

Previous research from the laboratories of Hal E. Broxmeyer and Edward F. Srour (Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA) established CD166, a marker expressed on stem and progenitor cells of all three embryonic lineages, as a marker of immature osteoblasts of the bone marrow stem cell niche [1, 2]. Furthermore, they also defined CD166 as a functional marker of murine and human long-term marrow repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) [3]. CD166, or activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (Alcam), mediates both homophilic (CD166‐CD166) and heterophilic (CD166‐CD6) interactions [4] and more recent studies from the Broxmeyer and Srour laboratory hoped to understand if homophilic CD166 interactions involving mature murine and human HSCs enhances their hematopoietic potential. 

Excitingly, Zhang et al. now report in STEM CELLS that CD166 interactions activate critical molecular pathways involved in enhancing hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell functions, including activation of the stemness and cell cycle pathways [5]. 

The authors studied mature mouse CD166+ Lineage-Sca‐1+CD117+ (LSK) hematopoietic progenitor cells and CD166+ osteoblasts, finding that interactions between these cells in short term co-culture significantly enhanced the expansion of colony‐forming units when compared to hematopoietic progenitor cells that did not express CD166. Encouragingly, the treatment of CD166+ hematopoietic progenitor cells with recombinant CD166 also prompted colony‐forming unit expansion.

Furthermore, CD34+ human cord blood stem cells that expressed CD166 also produced significantly higher numbers of CFUs following interaction with an immobilized recombinant CD166 when compared to CD166-negative stem cells, providing further proof of the positive effects of CD166 homophilic interactions.

To understand what signaling pathways CD166 homophilic interactions activate or repress, the authors employed single-cell RNA-sequencing to study highly purified hematopoietic progenitor cells from wild type and CD166 knockout mice following interaction with immobilized CD166 protein. Interestingly, cell activated cytokine, growth factor, and hormone signaling, epigenetic pathways, and genes implicated in the maintenance of stem cell pluripotency, and mitochondria‐related signaling pathways.

In summary, the authors provide evidence for homophilic CD166 interactions in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell function. Moreover, the team’s final reported experiment suggests that this interaction has the ability to enhanced short‐term engraftment in vivo, a finding that may enhance hematopoietic cell transplantation for the treatment of malignant and nonmalignant disorders [6].

For more on hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell function and the role of CD166, stay tuned to the Stem Cells Portal!

 

References

    Chitteti BR, Cheng Y-H, Poteat B, et al., Impact of interactions of cellular components of the bone marrow microenvironment on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell function. Blood 2010;115:3239. Chitteti BR, Cheng Y-H, Streicher DA, et al., Osteoblast lineage cells expressing high levels of Runx2 enhance hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation and function. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 2010;111:284-294. Chitteti BR, Kobayashi M, Cheng Y, et al., CD166 regulates human and murine hematopoietic stem cells and the hematopoietic niche. Blood 2014;124:519. Bowen MA, Aruffo AA, and Bajorath J, Cell surface receptors and their ligands: In vitro analysis of CD6-CD166 interactions. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics 2000;40:420-428. Zhang J, Ghosh J, Mohamad SF, et al., CD166 Engagement Augments Mouse and Human Hematopoietic Progenitor Function via Activation of Stemness and Cell Cycle Pathways. STEM CELLS 2019;37:1319-1330. Singh AK and McGuirk JP, Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Historical and Scientific Overview. Cancer Research 2016;76:6445.

11:38 Technology.orgBeating colon cancer with AI (1)

Dr. William Karnes’ directive when he arrived at UCI Health was nothing less than wiping out colorectal cancer in Orange

06.10.2019
20:22 CNBC health careThis Michigan doctor just launched an online clinic dedicated to anti-aging (1)

Sajad Zalzala wants to make anti-aging therapies accessible to anyone, but there's a lot of research to do before we get there.

20:20 CNN HealthBeing happier will help you live longer, so learn how to be happier (1)

If you could wish for just one thing, would it be happiness or a long life? Given what researchers tell us, one is likely to produce the other.

19:12 CNBC technologyThis Michigan doctor just launched an online clinic dedicated to anti-aging (1)

Sajad Zalzala wants to make anti-aging therapies accessible to anyone, but there's a lot of research to do before we get there.

16:49 FightAging.OrgFight Aging! Newsletter, October 7th 2019 (1)

Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out more: https://www.fightaging.org/services/ Contents Methionine Metabolism and the Pace of Aging Towards a More Glial-Centric View of Alzheimer's Disease Help to Crowdfund the SENS Research Foundation Transgenic Mouse Project to Move a Mitochondrial Gene into the Cell Nucleus A Deeper Delve into the […]

05.10.2019
18:24 Technology.orgFruit flies live longer with combination drug treatment (1)

A triple drug combination has been used to extend the lifespan of fruit flies by 48 percent in

17:25 Yahoo ScienceDiseases like West Nile, EEE and flesh-eating bacteria are flourishing due to climate change (1)

Climate change is altering the nation's environment and the microbes, viruses and insects that inhabit it, potentially increasing where diseases are.

12:53 Phys.orgCommonwealth targets climate change with regeneration projects (1)

The Commonwealth on Friday launched an ideas-sharing network to tackle the effects of climate change through replicable regeneration projects.

12:01 News-Medical.NetResearchers develop 3D tissue models of brain tumors in a brain-mimicking microenvironment (1)

A team of Tufts University-led researchers has developed three-dimensional human tissue culture models of pediatric and adult brain cancers in a brain-mimicking microenvironment, a significant advancement for the study of brain tumor biology and pharmacological response.

04:08 MedicalNewsToday.comMedical News Today: How plant based diets can help people with rheumatoid arthritis (1)

A new review of specialist literature shows that following a plant based diet can reduce rheumatoid arthritis symptoms, and explains why that may be.

04:08 MedicalNewsToday.comMedical News Today: Aging and cancer: A surprising two way relationship (1)

Although aging is the greatest risk factor for cancer, a recent study demonstrates how aging cells might, paradoxically, hinder cancer progression.

04.10.2019
22:58 Nanowerk.comGraphene transistor catches mycotoxins in food (1)

Researchers have developed a method for direct, point-of-use detection of mycotoxins in food. The method is based on the modification of electrolyte operated graphene filed effect transistors that have been specifically functionalized with aptamers by covalent binding. Demonstrating the performance of this method on Ochratoxin A, these sensors show a response time of within 5 minutes with a sensitivity down to 4 pg/ml - that is about three orders of magnitude less than accepted tolerance levels of Ochratoxin A.

22:19 FightAging.OrgTargeting GAS1 to Put Muscle Stem Cells Back to Work in Old Tissues (1)

A great many projects at various stages of development are characterized by their goal of forcing greater stem cell activity in old tissues, but without meaningfully addressing the underlying causes of stem cell decline in later life. This sort of research and development operates at the level of proximate causes, adjusting protein levels to change cell behavior. Among the potential therapies I'd place into this category: telomerase gene therapy; GDF11 upregulation; FGF2 inhibition; NAD+ upregulation; and so on. Muscle stem cells known as satellite cells are one of the better studied stem cell populations in this context, and many of the interventions are focused here. Today's open access research is a representative example, in that the authors describe a portion of the network of genes […]

20:28 NYT HealthScientist Who Discredited Meat Guidelines Didn’t Report Past Food Industry Ties (1)

The lead researcher, Bradley C. Johnston, said he was not required to report his past relationship with a powerful industry trade group.

19:37 ScienceDaily.comThe 'Goldilocks' principle for curing brain cancer (1)

Researchers found that a stable body temperature holds the key to awakening the body's immune response to fight off brain cancer.

19:02 ScienceDaily.comResearchers unlock potential to use CRISPR to alter the microbiome (1)

Researchers have developed a new way to deliver the DNA-editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 into microorganisms in the lab, providing a way to efficiently launch a targeted attack on specific bacteria.

19:02 ScienceDaily.comPeople eat more when dining with friends and family (1)

People eat more with friends and family than when dining alone -- a possible throwback to our early ancestors' approach to survival, according to a new study. This phenomenon is known as 'social facilitation'.

17:44 Phys.orgResearchers unlock potential to use CRISPR to alter the microbiome (1)

Researchers at Western University have developed a new way to deliver the DNA-editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 into microorganisms in the lab, providing a way to efficiently launch a targeted attack on specific bacteria.

16:33 StemCellsPortal.comlAdult Fly Intestine Could Help Understand Intestinal Regeneration (1)

BRISTOL (UK), September 2019 — Intestinal epith,elial cells (IECs) are exposed to diverse types of environmental stresses such as bacteria and toxins, but the mechanisms by which epithelial cells sense stress are not well understood. New research by the universities of Bristol, Heidelberg and the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) have found that Nox-ROS-ASK1-MKK3-p38 signaling in IECs integrates various stresses to facilitate intestinal regeneration.
The research, published in Nature Communications, used the adult fly intestine, which is remarkably like a human intestine, to understand how IECs sense stress or damage, defend themselves and promote epithelial regeneration.
Stress-sensing pathways are activated upon a variety of stresses in fly IECs, but how these pathways are activated and how they promote IEC resilience and intestinal regeneration are not known.
The researchers found that NADPH oxidase (Nox) in IECs produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon stress, but it wasn't fully understood how ROS promote intestinal regeneration. The paper has shown that it is partly effected by Ask1-MKK3-p38 signaling in IECs, stimulating their production of intestinal stem cell (ISC) mitogens and ISC-mediated regeneration. p38 was previously found to facilitate mammalian intestinal regeneration when damaged, but how it senses damage was not understood.
The researchers are still unclear how stress is sensed by intestinal epithelial cells but believe it is possible that Nox senses stress. The study also found damage activates stress-sensing pathways in fly IECs but how these pathways effect IEC resilience and intestinal repair is not fully clear.
Parthive Patel, Ph.D., of the School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine at the University of Bristol, said, "Our work has potential applications for regenerative medicine. Reactive oxygen species play an important role in tissue regeneration and even in neuronal axon regeneration.
"It is also relevant for diseases that develop from the loss of epithelial integrity such as inflammatory bowel diseases, which increases risk for colorectal cancer. Understanding how tissues sense stress and promote their resilience and repair will provide novel therapeutic strategies."

 

A fly intestine under pathogenic infection. The green cells are new cells produced during intestinal regeneration. The red signal is p38 activation in IECs upon damage. Image courtesy of the University of Bristol.
 
Learn more:https://www.bristol.ac.uk/news/2019/september/adult-fly-intestine.htmlhttps://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-12336-w

16:33 StemCellsPortal.comlDiscovery Could Improve Mds Cancer Treatment (1)

COLD SPRING HARBOR, NY (US), September 2019 — Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), one of the most common blood cancers, has very few treatment options. Now, researchers at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) have discovered a new and promising drug target for this deadly condition.
"At the moment, only a small portion of patients benefit from the standard therapy for MDS," said CSHL fellow and cancer researcher Lingbo Zhang, Ph.D. "Therefore, there is a very important medical need for a new and novel therapy for this disease."
Dr. Zhang's lab, working with experts from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, discovered the new drug target that could meet this need. Their research was recently published in Science Translational Medicine.
"We have been working with a multidisciplinary team that consists of physicians and medicinal chemists to translate our basic discovery into novel therapeutics which can be tested in clinical trials for the benefit of patients," Dr. Zhang said.
The ultimate goal, Dr.Zhang said, is to create a drug that will adequately restore blood cell production in MDS patients who are resistant to existing treatments.
To understand exactly how the new drug target works, it's important to first know why MDS is so difficult to treat. Unlike many other cancers, MDS is not characterized by a tumor. Instead, this blood cancer is sometimes referred to as "bone marrow failure disorder."
Bone marrow is designed to produce enough blood for everyday survival. When blood cells are lost via bleeding or when they grow too old to do their job, replacement cells are made and begin to mature. MDS results from those replacements being too few, defective or both.
Traditional treatment options for MDS symptoms, such as anemia, rely on the body's natural ability to make more mature red blood cells, which is driven by a hormone called erythropoietin (EPO).
Immature red blood cells developing in the bone marrow, called progenitor cells, must be exposed to EPO to trigger their final change into fully mature red blood cells ready to aid the body. It would then stand to reason that delivering lots of EPO to the bone marrow would fix most MDS cases. But this is simply not the case.
The reason that only a small portion of patients respond to common EPO-based treatments is because many MDS patients don't have enough functional progenitor cells within their bone marrow to begin with. In some cases, what functional cells are available will indeed become mature red blood cells. However, once that supply runs out, EPO treatments stop working, causing drug resistance. That's why Dr. Zhang and his colleagues decided to take a different approach.
"So to treat this," he explained, "you can't target the late progenitor. Their capacity to make new cells is very limited. But with the earlier cells, we have a chance."
Instead of relying on EPO and its target progenitor cells, they chose to target an even younger stage of the progenitor cells. The researchers discovered that when these cells are defective, activating a specific protein receptor called CHRM4 significantly hampers their ability to divide into those crucial EPO-responsive progenitor cells. By blocking this receptor, Dr. Zhang and his colleagues could restore healthy blood cell production.
In mice genetically designed to mirror the pathological features of human MDS, this strategy significantly improved survival rates.
"More importantly, these preclinical tests have shown that the treatment exhibited a sustained and long-term therapeutic efficacy," Dr. Zhang said. "We're now translating this discovery into clinical development, and we hope our progress will benefit patients in the near-future."

 

Immature blood cells (stained purple) do not divide into enough functioning red blood cells when defective. Researchers have discovered how to stop the protein signaling pathway that makes this defect so dangerous. Image courtesy of the Zhang lab/CSHL, 2019.
 
Learn more:https://www.cshl.edu/discovery-could-improve-mds-cancer-treatment/

14:40 News-Medical.NetPeople eat more with friends and family than when dining alone, finds study (1)

People eat more with friends and family than when dining alone - a possible throwback to our early ancestors' approach to survival, according to a new study. This phenomenon is known as 'social facilitation'.

13:03 Google news Sci/TechIs this half-price Surface Studio clone too good to be true? - Circuit Breaker (1)

Is this half-price Surface Studio clone too good to be true?  Circuit Breaker

12:10 NYT HealthRegeneration: A Miracle, Against the Odds (1)

Months after I’d shaved my head for cancer treatment, my old hair dropped out of the sky.